Understanding the Stages of Team Formation

Did you know that Team Build can help you to:
– a unified sense of purpose
– commitment to a set of values
– collective desire
– accountability and trust 

Challenge Consulting have Team Building workshops available that we can tailor to meet your needs and your budget. To find out more about what workshops we have on offer, click here.

You can’t expect a new team to perform well when it first comes together.

Team formation takes time, and teams often go through recognisable stages as they change from being collections of strangers to becoming united groups with common goals.
Tuckman’s Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing model describes these stages. When you understand it, you can help your new team become effective more quickly.
In this article, we’ll look at how you can use this model to build a highly-productive team.
About the Model
Psychologist Bruce Tuckman first came up with the memorable phrase “forming, storming, norming, and performing” in his 1965 article, “Developmental Sequence in Small Groups.” He used it to describe the path that most teams follow on their way to high performance. Later, he added a fifth stage, “adjourning” (which is sometimes known as “mourning”).
Let’s look at each stage in more detail.
In this stage, most team members are positive and polite. Some are anxious, as they haven’t fully understood what work the team will do. Others are simply excited about the task ahead.
As leader, you play a dominant role at this stage, because team members’ roles and responsibilities aren’t clear.
This stage can last for some time, as people start to work together, and as they make an effort to get to know their new colleagues.
Next, the team moves into the storming phase, where people start to push against the boundaries established in the forming stage. This is the stage where many teams fail.
Storming often starts where there is a conflict between team members’ natural working styles. People may work in different ways for all sorts of reasons, but if differing working styles cause unforeseen problems, they may become frustrated.
Storming can also happen in other situations. For example, team members may challenge your authority, or jockey for position as their roles are clarified. Or, if you haven’t defined clearly how the team will work, people may feel overwhelmed by their workload, or they could be uncomfortable with the approach you’re using.
Some may question the worth of the team’s goal, and they may resist taking on tasks.
Team members who stick with the task at hand may experience stress, particularly as they don’t have the support of established processes, or strong relationships with their colleagues.
Gradually, the team moves into the norming stage. This is when people start to resolve their differences, appreciate colleagues’ strengths, and respect your authority as a leader.
Now that your team members know one-another better, they may socialise together, and they are able to ask each other for help and provide constructive feedback. People develop a stronger commitment to the team goal, and you start to see good progress towards it.
There is often a prolonged overlap between storming and norming, because, as new tasks come up, the team may lapse back into behavior from the storming stage.
The team reaches the performing stage when hard work leads, without friction, to the achievement of the team’s goal. The structures and processes that you have set up support this well.
As leader, you can delegate much of your work, and you can concentrate on developing team members.
It feels easy to be part of the team at this stage, and people who join or leave won’t disrupt performance.
Many teams will reach this stage eventually. For example, project teams exist for only a fixed period, and even permanent teams may be disbanded through organisational restructuring.
Team members who like routine, or who have developed close working relationships with other team members, may find this stage difficult, particularly if their future now looks uncertain.

Figure 1: Leadership Activities at Different Group Formation Stages
Stage  Activities

– Direct the team, and establish clear objectives, both for the team as a whole and for individual team member 

– Establish processes and structures.

Build trust   and good relationships   between team members.

– Resolve conflicts   swiftly if they occur. Provide support, especially to those team members who are less secure.

– Remain positive   and firm in the face of challenges to your leadership, or to the team’s goal.

– Explain the “forming, storming, norming, and performing” idea, so that people understand why problems are occurring, and so that they see that things will get better in the future. – Coach   team members in assertiveness   and conflict resolution skills  , where this is necessary.

– Use psychometric indicators such as Myers-Briggs and the Margerison-McCann Team Management Profile to help people learn about different work styles and strengths.


- Step back and help team members take responsibility for progress towards the goal. 


– Delegate tasks and projects as far as you can. Once the team is achieving well, you should aim to have as light a touch as possible. You will now be able to start focusing on other goals and areas of work.


– Take the time to celebrate the team’s achievements – you may work with some of your people again, and this will be much easier if people view past experiences positively.

[Source: www.mindtools.com]